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湖南学位英语考试,每年举行两次,报名3月和9月,考试5月和11月;2018年下半年湖南省成人高等教育学士学位外语水平考试定于11月11日(星期日)上午9:00-11:00进行。

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一、一般现在时

1)经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。时间状语:every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday. 例如:

I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

2)客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例如:

The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

3)表示格言或警句。例如: Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

4)现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如:

I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。

Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

二、一般过去时

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。例如:

Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如:

When I was a child, I often played football in the street. Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 那时,布朗一家无论什么时候去,都受到热烈欢迎。

3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth “到……时间了” “该……了”例如:It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

It is time that sb. did sth.“时间已迟了” “早该……了”例如 It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'.例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow. 还是明天来吧。

三、一般将来时

1)shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。例如:

Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢?

Will you be at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗?

2)be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。例如:What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

例如:The play is going to be produced next month.这出戏下月开播。

c. 有迹象要发生的事。

例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.看那乌云,快要下雨了。

3)be +to表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如:

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。

4)be about to +动词原形,意为马上做某事。例如:

He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

注意:

1、一般现在时表示将来

1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

2)在时间或条件句中。例如:

When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。

2、用现在进行时表示将来下列动词come, go, arrive, leave等现在进行时可以表示将来:

I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

四、现在进行时

a. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。例如:

We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:

Mr. Green is writing another novel.他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。例如:

The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如:

You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

五、过去进行时

过去进行时表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作,常和表过去的时间状语连用,如:

I was doing my homework at this time yesterday.昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。

They were expecting you yesterday.他们昨天一直在等待。

难点释疑:

when作并列连词,表示“(这时)突然”之意时,第一个并列分句用过去进行时,when引导的并列分句用一般过去时。如: . I was taking a walk when I met him.我正在散步,突然遇见了他。

We were playing outside when it began to rain.我们正在外边玩,这时下起雨来了。

六、将来进行时

1)表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。例如:

She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。

I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。

2)常用的时间状语有soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening等。例如:By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时,我正躺在海滩上呢。

注意:“主将从现原则”,主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时(代替一般将来时)

When, as soon as, if,等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:

He is going to visit her aunt t when he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈……

七、现在完成时

a. 现在完成时可表示过去发生的动作对现在所产生的影响,后面通常不用时间状语,但句中常出现already, just, yet等副词。如:

Someone has broken the window.有人把窗户打破了。

I‘ve just finished reading the novel.我刚刚读完这本小说。

Have you seen the doctor yet?你看过医生了吗?

注:already和yet用法上的区别already常用于肯定句,置于句中。yet常用于否定句和疑问句,常用于句末。但already有时也可用语疑问句中暗示惊讶的心情。如:

b. 现在完成时也可表示从过去某时开始的动作,状态一直持续到现在,常和for, since引导的时间状语连用。

如: I have learned English for 5 years. He has lived in Beijing since he was born.注:

(1) for和since引导的时间状语的区别: for + 一段时间, since + 一点时间 从句(从句中常用一般过去时)。

(2)表示继续的现在完成时也可和lately, recently, so far, up to now, till now, in the past(last) few years……, this week (month, year……), all day, all this week等时间状语连用。

如:Tom has had a toothache all day.I haven‘t heard from him recently. (3)现在完成时也可表示从过去到现在曾经经历过或做过的事情,常和often, ever, never, before, once, …times等时间状语连用。如: . I’ve never been to Beijing.我从没去过北京。He has read this book before.难点释疑:

1.点动词与延续性动词的区别 .所谓点动词是指含有终止或短暂意义的动词。如:begin, end, die, buy, borrow, come, arrive, join, marry等动词。它们通常不与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

I have bought a book.我买了一本书。 . I‘ve had this book for three weeks.这本书我已经买了三星期了。

2. have got的含义 . have got形式上是现在完成时,却和have是同一个意思She has got a slight temperature. She has a slight temperature.她有点发烧。

3、用于现在完成时的句型It is the first / second time…… that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

八、过去完成时

(1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。如:

By nine o‘clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200张飞船发来的图片。

(2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。例如:

I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。

He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。

(3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。例如:

Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。

I didn‘t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。

(4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。例如:

I returned the book that I had borrowed.我已归还了我借的书。

She found the key that she had lost.她丢失的钥匙找到了。

(5)过去完成时常常用在宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。例如:. He said that he had known her well.他说他很熟悉她。

I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。

(6)在包含有when, until等连词的复合句中,例如:

When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.我醒来时雨已停了。

She didn‘t go to bed until she had finished he work.她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。

(7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。例如:

They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。

We had hoped to be able to come and see you .我们本来希望能来看看你。

(8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。例如: . Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.他刚到就又走了。

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